Cd Alaves — Sevilla. Ud Levante — Athletic Bilbao. Leganes Cd — Cf Getafe. Atletico Madrid — Cd Alaves. Villarreal — Celta Vigo. Espanyol — FC Barcelona.
Sd Eibar — Ud Levante. Sd Huesca — Real Madrid. Real Sociedad — Real Valladolid. Real Betis — Rayo Vallecano. Athletic Bilbao — Girona Cf.
Cd Alaves — Athletic Bilbao. Sevilla — Girona Cf. Espanyol — Real Betis. Ud Levante — FC Barcelona. Real Valladolid — Atletico Madrid.
Sd Huesca — Villarreal. Cf Getafe — Real Sociedad. Sd Eibar — Valencia. Celta Vigo — Leganes Cd. Real Madrid — Rayo Vallecano.
Athletic Bilbao — Real Valladolid. Rayo Vallecano — Ud Levante. Valencia — Sd Huesca. Girona Cf — Cf Getafe.
Real Sociedad — Cd Alaves. Leganes Cd — Sevilla. Real Betis — Sd Eibar. FC Barcelona — Celta Vigo. Atletico Madrid — Espanyol. Villarreal — Real Madrid.
Inga sändningar finns för aktuellt urval. The typical choice, poly methyl methacrylate PMMA is applied to the substrate by a glue-down process in which a precast, high-molecular-weight sheet of PMMA is attached to the plating base on the substrate.
The applied photoresist is then milled down to the precise height by a fly cutter prior to pattern transfer by X-ray exposure. Because the layer must be relatively free from stress, this glue-down process is preferred over alternative methods such as casting.
Further, the cutting of the PMMA sheet by the fly cutter requires specific operating conditions and tools to avoid introducing any stress and crazing of the photoresist.
A key enabling technology of LIGA is the synchrotron, capable of emitting high-power, highly collimated X-rays. This high collimation permits relatively large distances between the mask and the substrate without the penumbral blurring that occurs from other X-ray sources.
In the electron storage ring or synchrotron , a magnetic field constrains electrons to follow a circular path and the radial acceleration of the electrons causes electromagnetic radiation to be emitted forward.
The radiation is thus strongly collimated in the forward direction and can be assumed to be parallel for lithographic purposes.
Because of the much higher flux of usable collimated X-rays, shorter exposure times become possible.
Photon energies for a LIGA exposure are approximately distributed between 2. Unlike optical lithography, there are multiple exposure limits, identified as the top dose, bottom dose, and critical dose, whose values must be determined experimentally for a proper exposure.
The exposure must be sufficient to meet the requirements of the bottom dose, the exposure under which a photoresist residue will remain, and the top dose, the exposure over which the photoresist will foam.
The critical dose is the exposure at which unexposed resist begins to be attacked. During exposure, secondary radiation effects such as Fresnel diffraction , mask and substrate fluorescence , and the generation of Auger electrons and photoelectrons can lead to overexposure.
During exposure the X-ray mask and the mask holder are heated directly by X-ray absorption and cooled by forced convection from nitrogen jets. Temperature rise in PMMA resist is mainly from heat conducted from the substrate backward into the resist and from the mask plate through the inner cavity air forward to the resist, with X-ray absorption being tertiary.
Thermal effects include chemistry variations due to resist heating and geometry-dependent mask deformation.
For high-aspect-ratio structures the resist-developer system is required to have a ratio of dissolution rates in the exposed and unexposed areas of This developer provides the required ratio of dissolution rates and reduces stress-related cracking from swelling in comparison to conventional PMMA developers.
After development, the substrate is rinsed with deionized water and dried either in a vacuum or by spinning. At this stage, the PMMA structures can be released as the final product e.
In the electroplating step, nickel, copper, or gold is plated upward from the metalized substrate into the voids left by the removed photoresist.
Taking place in an electrolytic cell, the current density, temperature, and solution are carefully controlled to ensure proper plating. In the case of nickel deposition from NiCl 2 in a KCl solution, Ni is deposited on the cathode metalized substrate and Cl 2 evolves at the anode.
Difficulties associated with plating into PMMA molds include voids, where hydrogen bubbles nucleate on contaminates; chemical incompatibility, where the plating solution attacks the photoresist; and mechanical incompatibility, where film stress causes the plated layer to lose adhesion.
These difficulties can be overcome through the empirical optimization of the plating chemistry and environment for a given layout. After exposure, development, and electroplating, the resist is stripped.
One method for removing the remaining PMMA is to flood expose the substrate and use the developing solution to cleanly remove the resist.
Alternatively, chemical solvents can be used. Stripping of a thick resist chemically is a lengthy process, taking two to three hours in acetone at room temperature.
In multilayer structures, it is common practice to protect metal layers against corrosion by backfilling the structure with a polymer-based encapsulant.
At this stage, metal structures can be left on the substrate e. After stripping, the released metallic components can be used for mass replication through standard means of replication such as stamping or injection molding.
In the s, LIGA was a cutting-edge MEMS fabrication technology, resulting in the design of components showcasing the technique's unique versatility.
Liga A VideoJerman vs prancis 0-0 hasil bola tadi malam uefa liga a gol klasemen 07/09/2018
Ässien Aleksi Rekoselle yhden ottelun pelikielto — katso video. Ben Blood sopimukseen Tapparan kanssa. JYP vahvistuu Liigasta tutuilla puolustajilla.
Tapparalle tappio, Kärpät tasapeliin playoffs-avauksessa. Red Bull Läpimurto — jakso 6: Petteri Wirtanen ei jatka TPS: Ässä-hyökkääjä teki Liiga-historiaa — uskomaton yhteensattuma 24 vuoden takaa.
Hannu Sormunen rikkoi komean rajapyykin. Ässien Jarno Kärki iski hattutempun Tampereella — katso kaikki maalit. Ässien Aleksi Rekonen väliaikaiseen pelikieltoon.
Pelicans 18 8 5 5 1 52 41 30 6. Jukurit 19 6 7 6 3 48 46 28 In order to preserve chronological evolvements, any postponed matches are not included to the round at which they were originally scheduled, but added to the full round they were played immediately afterwards.
The Zamora Trophy is awarded by newspaper Marca to the goalkeeper with the lowest goals-to-games ratio. A goalkeeper has to have played at least 28 games of 60 or more minutes to be eligible for the trophy.
Updated to games played on 9 November Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Updated to match es played on 9 November La Liga , Soccerway Rules for classification: Head-to-head record is used only after all the matches between the teams in question have been played .
Updated to match es played on 5 November List of La Liga hat-tricks. Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 2 October Mariano Diaz returns to Real".
Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 30 April La Voz de Galicia. Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 15 September Al cabo de la calle.
Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 30 May The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 8 May